Punk Comunity

Punk is a sub-culture that was born in London, England. Initially, the group is always confounded by punk skinhead groups. However, since the 1980s, when rampant in American punk, punk and skinhead groups as if united, because they have the same spirit. However, Punk can also mean the kind of music or genre that was born in the early 1970s. Punk can also mean the ideology of life that includes social and political aspects.

Youth movement that was initiated by the children of this working-class Americans who quickly spread financial and economic problems triggered by the moral decline by political figures that triggered the level of unemployment and high crime. Punk tried to quip the authorities in his own way, through the songs with music and lyrics are simple yet sometimes coarse, fast beats and stomping.

Many people confuse a punk as a glue sniffer and rioters in the UK because once an epidemic use of strong-smelling glue to replace the beer that was bought by them. Many others who damage the image of punk since many of them roaming the streets and do various crimes.

Punk fashion is more famous than the subject matter and the behavior they display, like the Mohawk-style haircut indian tribe, or a la feathercut cut and colored with bright colors, boots, chains and spikes, leather jackets, tight jeans and shabby clothes, anti-establishment, anti-social, the rioters and criminals from the lower classes, dangerous drunk so many who think that people who look like that's worthy to be called as a punker.

Punk was also a youth resistance movement based on the belief that We Can do it Ourselves. Assessment of punk in the view of a problem can be seen through the lyrics of the song that talks about political issues, environmental, economic, ideological, social and even religious issues.

Brilliant Russian psychologist, Pavel Semenov, concluded that humans satisfy hunger for knowledge in two ways. First, do research on the environment and regulate the research results in a rational (science). Second, reset the immediate environment in order to create something new (art).

With the above definition, punk can be categorized as part of the art world. Lifestyle and mindset of its predecessor punk predecessors like avant-garde art movement, which is dressed nyleneh, blurs the boundaries between artistic ideals and realities of life, provoking the audience openly, using the viewer (the performers) of low quality and reorganize (or mendisorganisasi) establishment lifestyle drastically. Adherents of the two schools are also beginning to believe one thing, that hebohnya appearance (Appearances) must be accompanied by hebohnya thinking (ideas).

Punk then expand as the fruit of disappointment lower-class rock musicians of the music industry was dominated by well-established rock musicians, such as The Beatles, Rolling Stone, and Elvis Presley. Musicians do not play punk rock tunes high technique or a heartbreaking love songs. Conversely, more punk songs like shouting demonstrators protest against cruel world. Punk lyrics of these songs tell the frustration, anger, and saturation of compromise with the law of the streets, poor education, menial work, unemployment and repression apparatus, the government and the figure of the ruler to the people.

As a result labeled as punk rock and roll music streams left, so that often do not get a chance to appear on television. Record companies were reluctant to orbit them.

Lifestyle is relatively no one has the same lifestyle with another. Ideology is taken from the word "ideas" and "logos" which means pure thoughts in life. Lifestyle and ideology developed in accordance with the place, time and situation of the punk Kalisari at this time began to develop the project "jor-rod" that take advantage of the media before the media exploit us. In other words punk trying to free something that shackles on his day respectively.

Punk and Anarchism
Reaganomic failure and defeat of the United States in the Vietnam War in the 1980s, helped temperatures warm up the world of punk at that time. Punk bands second wave (1980-1984), such as Crass, Conflict, and Discharge from the United Kingdom, The Ex and the Dutch BGK, MDC and the Dead Kennedys from the United States has transformed the rebellious spirit of punk into pemendam (rebellious thinkers) rather than just a cult rock n 'roll. Anarchism ideology promoted by the band's ever-punk band's first wave (1972-1978), among others, the Sex Pistols and The Clash, is seen as the only option for those who have lost confidence in the authority of the state, society, and the music industry.

In Indonesia, the term anarchy, anarchist or anarchism is used by the media to declare an act of vandalism, fights or mass violence. Yet according to its founders, namely William Godwin, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchism is an ideology that requires the formation of societies without states, with the assumption that the state is a legal form of dictatorship must end.

Countries to enact legal and regulatory enforcement often are coercive, limiting citizens to vote and be responsible for his own choice. Anarchists believe if the state dominance over the people erased, the right to exploit the natural wealth and human resources will grow by itself. People able to meet the needs of her own life without state interference.

The meaning of punk anarchism is not limited to purely political sense. In daily life, anarchism means no rules of restraint, either from public or record company, because they can create its own rules of living and record companies as they wish. Punk ethics of this kind commonly known as DIY (do-it-yourself / do it myself).

Involvement of the punk ideology of anarchism in the end will give new color in the ideology of anarchism itself, because punk has the typical individual in the motion. Who carried the punk movement of anarchism as an ideology commonly known as anarcho-punk movement.

Punk in Indonesia
Armed with DIY ethics, some punk communities in big cities in Indonesia like Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta and Malang pioneered the recording business and limited distribution. They make their own record label to overshadow the like-minded bands as well as distribute it to the market. Then it evolved into a kind of small shops, commonly called distributions.

CDs and cassettes are no longer the only merchandise. They also produce and distribute t-shirts, accessories, books and magazines, posters, and services piercing (piercing), and tattoo. All products sold are limited and with a very affordable price. Within the framework of the philosophy of punk, distro is resistance to the implementation of the consumer behavior of young devotee of Levi's, Adidas, Nike, Calvin Klein, and other branded goods abroad.

Oi! means hello in a cockney accent in the UK. Oi! music began in the late 70's after the emergence of Punk Rock. When the first wave of punk attack, bands like Sham69, The Business, Cock Sparrer and has been singing about life on the streets at the moment trying to launch the Sex Pistols "Anarchy In The Uk". Then reality punk or street punk began with Sham 69 and Sparrer, as well as Slaughter and The Dogs also Menace.

Oi! is music for all and everyone who walked in the streets of the city and saw the low on the elites can be connected with the Oi!. Everyone who works all day as a salary slave can be connected with the Oi!. All the people who always feel different, can also be associated with Oi!. Music Oi! regardless of differences of race, color, and trust. "Oi! Music is about having a laugh and having a say, plain and simple ...."

When the '80s punk rock attack and get a new breath, Oi! become a solid part of that movement, which was introduced by Garry Bushell, a writer in the Sounds, music paper in England. Garry believes that punk rock is the music of protest and gather all the bands under the banner of street punk Oi! such as The Business, The 4-skins, The Burial, Combat 84, Infariot, and Last Resort attacked Punk Scene with the reality of their kind. Like the motto of Last Resort, "No Mess, No Fuse, just Pure Impact!"

Music Oi! began to fade in the late 80s. And in America, hardcore is a music that was heard by a skinhead. Can be said that music Oi! Skinhead is not just his music.

Oi! and racism
The first people to hear Oi! must be identical with the skinhead, skinheads while synonymous with racism. So the misunderstandings that arise, Oi! music is racist. This culture began with the arrival of Jamaican immigrants to England. Skinhead dress code was adopted from Rude boys (remember ska) and mods, but with a better view and Rough Tough. The real skinheads are not racist, but the image will be misused by the right skinhead neo-Nazis to create a strong character. but actually that was not a racist skinheads, and needs to know that the image is certainly true skinheads hard not mean racism.

The lyrics of Oi! anti-rasis/fasis tend to talk about life as a skinhead, protest, football, beer, and a bit of violence! do not forget some of the songs talk about LOVE Cock Sparrer. please check. This music listeners in addition there is also a skinhead punks, rude boys, mods, and Herberts. What is meant by Herberts are people who like the Oi! but not the skinheads or punks. They are just ordinary people who love with Oi!.

In Bandung alone, Oi! start in mid 90's beginning with Runtah. When the ska boom in Indonesia, popping up a lot of skinheads, whether they're just poseurs, or a trendy wankers itselfs true skinheads. Along with "dead" ska trend because it is devastating hit by a major label, then disappears also the Skinheads. But remember, every loss of a trend that does not mean all is lost subculture that created or carried away by the trend. Although a bit, but Skinheads in Indonesia, especially in Bandung still going strong and getting Bigger. There are some skinhead organizations in the world who come to Indonesia. Among others are the Red and Anarchist Skinheads Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice. Even his own Neo-Nazi Skinhead on the colored countries like Indonesia. A handful of racist skinheads is seen in Bandung and Jakarta. In Yogyakarta the Skinheads are generally already understand the origin of this sub-culture. In Yogyakarta a few bands playing ska skinheads than Oi! and hardcore.

Until now the band had a lot of Oi! in Bandung, such as Haircuts, moneylenders, Battle 98, The Real Enemy, Sanfranskins, One Voice, OppressionHead, Virgin Oi!, WFC kids and more. Since the wave of racist skinheads who began troubling the few non-racist skinheads and anti-racist from some band Oi! in bandung, created a band called Combat 34 is very anti-racist, this is a band for skinhead racist taunts in Jakarta who called themselves Combat 18 Indonesia, the songs they were told about what use to be racist in Indonesia, an invitation to fight for racist skinheads , and of course also about football, fights in the street, with their motto "Sometimes Anti-Social but Always Anti-racist". Bands had already released several compilations and a mini album under the auspices of the United Races Records. Skinheads in Bandung often seen in the store workers in the building ground floor next to Miramar Palaguna. Now Gd. Miramar is gone, and we can meet them in the PI (Main Market: the term for the first Mall in Bandung) located at the rear of Bandung Indah Plaza mall.

Do not forget student city, Yogyakarta, here there are many band2 Oi! / Streetpunk, they masing2 have different characteristics between the band, like Captain Oi!, Sardonic, Scaly-breasted Hawk, Mataram Ditch, Bala Nusantara and much more, than many that have been disbanded , some of these bands are under the auspices of Realino Records, Ruckson Music (owned by one of the personnel Dom 65), Unite n Strong. skinheads in Yogyakarta may be found in the streets of Mataram. There are several compilation albums either full or that have been circulating.

In Jakarta alone skinhead scene fairly well developed. We can see a lot of skinheads in this city seputaran. Starting from Trad Skins, SHARP Skins, until there was a racist. Oi bands! Jakarta origin, among others, is The End, Anti-Squad, Garuda Alopecia, the Gross, the suspenders, and others.

Similarly, in Denpasar, Bali, skinheads once thriving community, as evidenced by the emergence of several Band Oi! such as The Resistance, Paku 5, Metro Mini, Bootbois, The Stomper, The Bois and many more. Today in the Denpasar skinhead community centered on a place in the area seputaran Jalan Imam Bonjol is a cafe owner who has given a name meaning SKINET NETWORK Skinhead, skinhead is where the community gathered in Bali.

Crust Punk
If you think that the community Punk Anarcho Punk is a very brutal, then you should listen to this one. Crust Punk itself was claimed by the punk community and the others as the most brutal punk community. Adherents of this ideology is usually called by Crusties. The Crusties often perform various rebellions in their daily lives.
Music they play is a combination of Anarcho Punk music with Heavy Metal. The Crusties are people anti-social, they just want to socialize with fellow Crusties only.

Glam Punk
The members of this community are the artists. What they experience in everyday life often pour their own in a variety of works of art. They really stay away from disputes with other communities or even with other people.

Hard Core Punk
Hard Core Punk began to flourish in the 1980s in the United States in the north. Punk Rock music with the feel of the beat-beat, which is fast becoming their mandatory music. Rebellion soul is also very strong in their daily lives, sometimes even their fellow members are often problematic.

Nazi Punk
Among the many community Punk, Nazi Punk maybe this is a community that really is still pure. Nazi ideology really viscous flow in the souls of its members. Nazi Punk itself began to develop in the UK in the late 1970s and very quickly spread to the United States. For his own music, they named it Rock Against Communism and Hate Core.

The Oi
The Street Punk Oi or is usually composed of the hooligans who are often raising hell everywhere, even more so in every game of football. Members themselves usually called by the name of Skinheads. The Skinheads itself adhere to the principle of hard work was required, so even though they are also prone to riot was still thinking about their survival. For the music business, the Skinheads are more courage to express his music is dibandingakan with communities Punk others. The Skinheads are themselves often in trouble with the Anarcho Punk and Crust Punk.

Queer Core
Punk community this one was very strange, its members consisted of those "sick", ie the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transexual. Although composed of those "sick", but this community can be a danger if one is daring to disturb them. In life, members of this community is much more closed than the communities Punk others. Queer Core itself is a result of the split from Hard Core Punk in 1985.

Riot Grrrl
Riot Grrrl was beginning to form in 1991, its members are women who are out of the Hard Core Punk. These members themselves do not want to hang out other than with women. Usually the members themselves come from Seattle, Olympia and Washington DC.

Scum Punk
If you are interested in punk, this maybe one of the community who deserve to be followed. Scum Punk called Straight Edge members with the title Scene. They really give priority to comfort, cleanliness, moral goodness and health. Many members of Scum punk who did not consume substances that can damage their own bodies.

The Skate Punk
Skate Punk is still closely associated with the Hard Core Punk music. This community has grown rapidly in Venice Beach, California area. The members of this community are usually very loving skate boards and surf.

Ska Punk
Ska Pun is a very interesting merger between Punk with original Jamaican music commonly called reggae. They also have their own type of dance they usually call the Skanking or Pogo, energetic dance is particularly suited to the music of the memilikibeat Punk Ska-beat very fast.

Punk Fashion
The Punkers usually have a very interesting way of dressing, even not a few people who are not Punkers their finery to imitate this. Punkers Sometimes the style is also bundled with the current style of dress that ended up damaging the image of the Punkers itself. For his own clothes, leather jackets and leather pants to be one of their mainstays, but there are also Punkers which uses a very tight jeans and T-shirts combined with that said the names of their bands or criticism against the government. For hair styles usually spike or Mohawk became their mainstay. For this hair style follow many ordinary relax because it's very interesting, but sometimes even making it appear to bear. Body piercing, chains and bracelets spike into one of the mandatory they wear. For shoes, besides high boots, the sneakers Punkers also commonly used but only from Converse sneakers they wear.

The style seems more prevalent these punkers bears lately, if so maybe you agree with the expression PUNK NOT DEAD.!!
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The birth of Skinhead Culture

Skinhead is basically a new wave of Mods culture that has developed a few years earlier. Initially, they called the Hard Mods, a term that refers to the makeup, behavior and mindset they harsher than the traditional Mods.
The Skinhead gang was more impressed than their predecessors, they more often use violence, a natural behavior of the children of the working class are not satisfied with the reality of his life. One thing to keep in mind here that the actual emergence of the Skinhead is a rejection of the Mods that way of thinking when it started to lose its essence (Most of the Mods when it became Hippies). They are people who reject traditional dress Mods who was very expensive and can not be purchased by the children as their working class.
But like Mods, Skinheads had great respect for the way they dress neat and tidy. The difference with the basic idea of Mods Skinhead fashion is how to make it look neat, dapper, elegant, but at the same time also looks hard, gahar, and punk. The result is an outfit that is completely different with the Mods, expensive suit in the left, instead they chose collar shirts Fred Perry, Ben Sherman shirts, Levi's Staprest or Levi's Jeans 501, in addition to a pair of suspenders to hold to stay in the hip, and Harrington jackets, jeans or jacket Crombie (a coat). Dancing shoes replaced by Industrial Boots, before finally Boots Dr Martens branded out on the market, and become a more popular choice. Hair pieces in the days getting shorter blades, in some cases even almost bald so people can see their scalp on the sidelines of their hair very short, from this came the term 'Skinhead'. Similarly, the women, they also cut hair very short, term for this hairstyle is the Feather cut (very short on top but keep them long in the side and bangs on the usually depannnya). Scooter vehicle remains as popular as traditional among the Mods, but now it is not longer a necessity, for Skinhead scooter as a vehicle is traveling is not an object for the trophy on their friends, as in the Mods, (so, no good , no it's fine). The clothes of their choice because of all the goods are cheap and affordable by the bag of children at the time the working class. Another thing is the reason for selection of clothes is because all the clothes were more suited as a "service uniform fighting in the streets" rather than traditional-style suit, Mods, although the dancing shoes and a suit remains in use in some occasions. Like Rude boy in Jamaica, any violence is very identical to the Skinhead culture. The fight also likely to be the reason why the Boots of choice, especially those in the coated steel at the ends (Steel Toe), which can make weapons to injure opponents. That was the reason why the haircut "almost bald" to be their choice, namely that the hair could not be in the bunch when bekelahi with the enemy, and in an era that is usually the men keep beards, too, who was doing the Skinhead on this. The fight is what makes them a bad reputation among the general public, Skinheads are street toughs who reject its existence in society.
At the end of 1968 the number of Hard Mods increasingly, as more and more young children of the working class who reject the traditional Mods mindset. Gank-gank any Hard Mods emerged in cities like London, Birmingham, Liverpool, New Castle and Glasgow (his Gang called the Glasgow Spy Kids is very popular to this day to the reputation of violence). At first they called for different in each city, the most common are Heads Clean, Shave Heads, Spy kids, and Peanuts (referring to the sound of the scooter they were riding). In the year 1969 Mods rejection of middle-class culture that was already contaminated bungapun generation mindset increasingly become-and so, the traditional separation between Mods that have evolved so Hippies and Hard Mods / Skinhead was unavoidable. The Hippies are the average middle class which is the main enemy of the Skinheads. The fight that led to this violence occurs in every occasion they met, but the greatest place on Bank Holiday in 1968 and 1969, here Skinhead media attention for the first time.
One more thing that make up the Skinhead culture is violence that occurs on the football terraces. England's is a country with a football culture deeply rooted. Since the victory of England in the 1966 World Cup in football became increasingly attract the attention of young children English at that time. Tradition of watching football at the weekend with his father gradually disappeared, along with part-time job that many children did that time the working class who make them have their own money to buy tickets go to football petandingan. Violence and Hooliganisme was already entrenched in the world persepak bolaan English for centuries before, but entered the era of the 60's it was more organized. The hooligans are mostly featured Hard Mods gahar with jeans and boots like that in the mentioned above. Hooliganisme organized or more known as the 'Firm / Mobs' is increasingly prevalent in the season from 1968 to 1969. It was almost all the teams the south and north of England have hooligans who gang members were all Skinheads. They usually make trouble not only off the field, but also in the field, fighting with other supporters and of course with the police. In a short time media such as The Sunday Mirror, Suns and The Football mails Skinhead associate with the riot. At first the news casual but over time it increasingly excessive coverage and one-sided, place the Skinheads as the sole defendant even if the riots are not happening because of their behavior. Fights and riots occurred in almost every game, especially in the northern region where soccer and cultural Beyonce is more popular than supporters danced in night clubs like in the south of England. The fight is becoming more frequent to make the Skinhead feel the need to arm themselves. Boots are now in a sense no longer enough, now they are arming themselves with knives folding knives or knives used in use to shave (Razor). These weapons and even then in use in the fight against Hippes, Rockers, Greaser, and Hell Angels. Skinhead is increasingly synonymous with juvenile delinquency and even violence and serious crime, it makes them wary keberedaanya by the people, especially the police. Fighting in the streets, create chaos in the football terraces, beating Hippies, (even) Mods on the Bank Holiday, yeah ... the new culture is really identical with violence. But there are times where they left Yes ... ..!!! The next thing to form Skinhead culture from the culture at the Mods and will cling to the Skinhead until whenever is their love of black music sperti RnB, Soul (output Tamla, Stax and Motown) and music Ska / Reggae from Jamaica. What distinguishes the Mods Skinheads in terms of listening to music are: Mods are very fond of Soul and Ska (they call it bluebeat, a label that released in the UK Prince Buster), but their main desire is to include songs from The Who and The Small Faces , while the Skinheads would rather listen to music at that time Jamaica has evolved into Reggae, yes .... Skinhead music is synonymous with Reggae. Why the Skinhead Reggae adopted as the music has a lot of debate today. The first theory is that it is caused by the Skinheads are living next door to Jamaican immigrants, so there are cultural interaction between them, one of them is Reggae music. This causes the Skinheads are influenced by culture and Rudeboy appearance in Jamaica, including at shorten pants or rolled over to show ankle Boots 8 or 10 holes which was popular among Skinheads. 'Both Mods and Skinheads are loved and inspired by the Rude Boy Jamaican culture, and combined with the British working class culture to form a new culture of the Skinhead culture'. The second theory is that this is caused by the cultural heritage of Mods and more so because of the popularity of Ska increased since the song My Boy Lollypop (Millie Small) perched at number 1 position in the British national charts in 1964. The third theory is that this is caused by record prices at Reggae which is cheap, so easy for the Skinhead to get it. However, the theory most widely approved are: the adoption of Skinhead Reggae as a musical moment caused by their rejection of Progressive Rock music ala Woodstock bands like The Cream and Jimmy Hendrix are the preferred by the Hippies, yes .... Skinhead is a cultural rejection of the culture that tends Hippies middle class. But whatever the reason, when the Pioneers released Longshot Kick The Bucket and achieve success in October 1969, and in one after another with a song that Desmond Dekker Israelites who won bejudul Pucak position at the end of 1969, and Skinhead Reggae became increasingly synonymous, and munculah new name for this musical genre: 'Skinhead Reggae'. But the main thing that makes Skinhead Reggae certainly interested in a cheerful rhythm and took the body naturally to dance. In fact it is not important song because few Skinhead then who understand the language 'slang' in Jamaica is used in the Reggae songs. The proof is: his Israelites Desmond Dekker may sell as many as 8 million copies around the world at the time, but just asked what the contents of the lyrics to Skinhead 10 people and you'll get 10 different answers. 'And that's the things that make up this culture, from the Gang Hard Mods on the street with scooternya, Bootboys / Hooligans in football terrace, and Rude Boy on the dance floor came the children of the working class named Skinhead ....'
Jamaica Ska music was already entered into the UK since the early decades of the 60's and got popular in the mid-decade. It's all thanks to the expertise of the promoters who brought music artists like Jamaica to England, Chris Blackwell owner of Island Records. But what happens to these Ska different things that happened to Reggae. Although it is theoretically Reggae is a 'new forms' of Ska, it does not make direct Reggae popular in the UK. Reggae in the early entry into the UK mainland in 1968, radio stations and music media provides almost no support in Reggae. In fact even as they criticized the Reggae music that is still raw (sometimes Reggae uses only 2 guitars and the duration of the key 2 or 3 minutes, totally in contrast with the complex Progressive Rock and the duration of 6 to 8 minutes), more than that they call it a music 'yobbo (crude and stupid)'. Skinhead Reggae association with this music was made in the market away from the mainstream. Consequently, if there is no publicity and coverage in the media of course will not be able to enter the charts and very few stores that would sell records Reggae artists like Bob Andy, Desmond Dekker and Toots and The Maytals. Reggae moment in the play only in the pubs and night clubs such as the Ram Jam Club, Golden star club, The Ska Bar, etc, which most visitors are the Skinheads, who quickly adopted this music as an important part of their new culture . But with larger and larger and the spread of Skinhead culture in the UK, the Reggae became more popular, it is this that leads Reggae songs to the top of national charts, and then suddenly Reggae became a favorite with everyone, not just Skinhead only.
The most prominent record companies that produce and distribute recordings Reggae LPs when it was Recods Trojan. This company was established by Island Records and Beat and Commercial Company (B & C) in the year 1968. But then the owner Chris Blackwell Island records withdraw from Trojan ownership records, the company gave all the owners Goptal Lee B & C company that had been an accountant. The main rival of the Trojan Pama records are records and the labels that the subsidies are the property of Harry Palmer and two brothers. Each label-artist artist mepunyai own popular among Skinheads time. On the Trojans have artists such as Desmond Dekker, Judge Dread, Toots and The Maytals, Harry J Allstars, The Pioneers, The Maytones, Joe White, Clancy Ecccles, Symarips and more, while in the Pama there: Laurel Aitken, Derrick Morgan, Pat Kelly, The Marvels, Alton Ellis, The Upsetter, and much more. Competition between the two labels are in use by Jamaican producers who are not honest to make more money, they often sign contracts with both the label without the knowledge of one of them. But this competition to win by a Trojan, with more than 40 fruit labels in the subsidies, the label is 80% controlled Reggae music market at the time. At the end of 1969 released a Trojan Reggae hits that would become very legendary in Skinhead culture, namely Skinhead Moonstomp by Symarips (aka The Pyramids). Skinhead Moonstomp then even become a standard for the songs Skinhead Reggae, and his rhythm is a derivative of his Moonhop Derrick Morgan released by Pama. Apart from this is the song Moonstomp Skinhead Reggae Skinhead discussed first in the lyrics, it makes Skinhead now have a funnel as a separate publication, moreover, it makes the strong emotional connection between artists Jamaican Reggae with the Skinheads, the British working class children which became the main fans. Skinhead Moonstomp then in one after another by the other songs that make the object of discussion Skinheads in the lyrics, including a girl Skinhead, Skinhead Jamboree (The Symarips), Skinhead Shuffle (The Mohawk), Skinhead Train (Laurel Aitken), Skinheads do not fear and Skinhead Moondust (The Hot Rod All stars), Skinhead Revolt (Joe the Boss), Skinhead a message to you (Desmond Riley), Skinhead a Bash Them (Claudette and the Corporation), and much more. Skinhead Reggae popular in England at that time and even then make Ska and Rocksteady again popular in the dance floors night clubs. Another favorite music in Skinhead circles at the time was American Soul music which is more known by the term 'Northern Soul' is released under the label Tamla Motown, Stax and Atlantic Records. Artists among his other is Martha Reeves and The Vandelas, Smokey Robinson, Aretha Franklin, The Miracles, The Supremes, Ray Charles, etc., which are popular decade since the early 60's.Even at the beginning of the year in 1970 Caribbean Music Festivals held in 9000 attended the audience, in one after another with the UK Reggae Tour featuring The Upsetter, The Pioneers, Jimmy Cliff, Harry J Allstars, Desmond Dekker, Max Romeo, etc., are around England during 4 weeks. Famous clubs in London were regularly showing Jamaican artists. Reggae really popular at the time, and fans are fanatical Skinhead, not even a little of their music became a serious collector of Jamaica. Some of them even become DJs Reggae and start their own business the system sound. There is even a kind of unwritten rule that time, ie more in the collection have a Skinhead then he will get the respect, little wonder then Skinhead spent most of his money to buy Reggae LPs.
Entering the era of 70-Skinhead culture became increasingly larger and more far left 'father' of the Mods. Culture is increasingly synonymous with violence, along with coverage in the media that is increasingly cornered them. At that time more and more young children who join this culture, unfortunately they are affected by Skinheads reputation in the media form, so they think Skinhead is about violence, riot at a football stadium and beat anyone they dislike. Later this reputation further violence in campurnya participate perparah with right-wing political forces that infiltrated Skinhead culture. Since 1971 in Jamaica Reggae music itself change with the widespread understanding Rastafarians (an understanding that teach that the black race out of Africa must go back to Africa, the land promised to them) in the country. Reggae suddenly is about Zion, Jah, Babylon, and all things smelly Africa, no more songs about the Skinhead in mainland UK, this course seemed to break the emotional connection between Jamaica and the Skinhead culture. Own soul has now evolved in such a way to disco music, make Skinhead losing her identity. Now only the violence is all this cultural identity, all of a sudden you are the guilty in the eyes of society if you are a Skinhead. This makes the older Skinheads and is the pioneer of this culture increasingly disgusted with the situation at that time. The more you're old then you're more mature and do not want to stop doing stupid things like fighting in the streets without a clear purpose. Entering the year 1972 Skinhead culture increasingly lost its way, but this culture is not destroyed or simply disappeared like a trend, reality Skinhead culture continues to grow as the birth of a new generation of this culture ... .. This story was continued with leaders who are 'the children' Skinhead culture named: Suedehead, Smoothies, Bootboys, and Clockwork Skinhead ...
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The Skinhead

Subculture as disclosed Brake is an attempt to overcome the problems experienced by the collective that emerged from the contradictions of social structures he built a form of collective identity which the individual's identity can be obtained outside of identity inherent in the class, education, and employment. (Brake, in Barker, 2006: 339) The reason is that also raises skinhead cult which today has signed and developed in Indonesia.

George Marshall a little to explain the origins of skinheads in the book The Skinheads. Skinhead is a subculture that emerged from the working class in England in the 1960s who conceived as a middle-class opposition force in the name of the value of working class solidarity and masculinity. This subculture is the development of the Mod which means the children of middle-class who wanted to look neat, stand out and be able to match the other classes, was competitive, proud and fake. Mod has four streams, namely school art group, mainstream mods, scooter boys, and the hard mods became known skinheads. (Marshall, 2005: xxiv-xxv)

However, the skinhead subculture adherents in Indonesia is often considered only as an anomaly which is more artificial. Maybe is true if Indonesia does not remember the skinheads at the time and place of occurrence subculture of skinheads.

The emergence of skinheads themselves as described above seems to be epigonis, so naturally when skinheads in Indonesia is slightly different because the skinheads Indonesia (especially Surakarta) is not a form of prototypes, and this principle applies relativism. Although these differences can be observed from a thin dress that looks from the brand selection. This does not necessarily make the Skinheads in Surakarta towards superficial, because skinheads are virtues in totality the attitude, as expressed Marshall:

Skinhead is the totality of attitudes, you can not cut your head and wear boots and say that you are a skinhead. Skinheads have to have convictions working class itself. Skinhead is a sort of appreciation for clothing and music. I think you have to really understand the roots so you're sure to be a skinhead. (Marshall, 2005: 23)

Opinion is quite irrelevant to the fact that there is confidence in the skinheads adherents in Surakarta, where at first they tried to understand the beliefs of the skinheads before engaging in these subcultures.

The dissenting opinion expressed by Malcolm Barnard:

In this case an individual is not the first one (Skinheads) and dressed like that, but the clothes that makes the individual becomes (Skinheads). That social interaction by using clothing, which makes the individual as a member of a group, and not vice versa, the man from the members of a group first and then interact socially. (Barnard, 2007: 45)

Although little Goerge intersects with Marshall's opinion about the totality of the above attitude, opinion Barnard also has the truth within the scope of Surakarta. Basically the two opinions on each other continuously. A skinhead in Surakarta revealed that the initial interest in the skinhead is about fashion / style. Of interest is he beginning to find out all about skinheads.

As a pragmatic reference is the opinion of Chris Barker and John Storey of the book each little mention of the style and skinheads.

Subcultures of youth mengkomuikasikan their distinctive identities and their differences from and in opposition to peer groups, parents and the dominant culture through a political force. The significance of the youth subculture is always played through the style and not as a struggle really going on in other places. (Storey, 2007: 153)

Skinheads are believed to describe an imaginary re-mastering 'determination' man of the working class through cropped hair, boots, jeans, and braces. Style they describe resources contained in the collectivity and the working class through teritorialitas coherence and loyalty 'gang' is to his friends. So the combination silistik is a form of symbolic resistance to wake the arena of struggle over hegemonic and counter-hegemonic. However, there is no solution subculture of low wages, the dull routine of work and lack of education, so that the 'resolution' youth subculture remains at the level of symbolic ritual. (Barker, 2006: 342)

Clothing in this case is meant as a sign that indicates the identity of the audience, not as a solution to structural problems of class, especially the working class. Another reason of the use of certain clothing is about the spirit Skinheads contained. In the chapter "This is He The Johnny Reggae" The book pretty much describes Skinhead skinhead style of some opinions of a skinhead, one of them a Scottish skinheads who asserted:

"So we remain consistent to look with jackets Wrangler and Levi's, Harrigton, suspenders pants, T-shirts, skinners, parallel pants, union shirt popular at that time. We are deeply concerned with the spirit in it." (Marshall, 2005: 96)

Here a kind of force plays an important role in the culture because they were considered to have a artifaktual communicative function, in other words can dimetaforakan style as "social skin".

In terms of style of opinions in these books is still comprehensive. While the more specific books such as: Skinhead Nation (George Marshall) and the Spirit of '69 - A Skinhead Bible (George Marshall) and others discuss only limited areas in which European and American authors to domicile. It needs to be done for local research to determine in detail the style of skinheads in Surakarta.

Referring to the opinion of Malcolm Barnard, meaning practice clothes taken into consideration in determining the identity of skinheads in Surakarta. Criticism that it was deceptive fashion has two aspects. First that fashion was taking the body and serve as a disguise or something is not intrigue. This is the claim that the fashion skinheads in Surakarta impose meaning of the original raw materials has no meaning or just have a natural meaning. The first criticism assumes that there is something true, pure, and no fashion sense who by then raised and linked to other things. The difficulty of these ideas is that then by ketidakbermaknaan fashion dressed and gave birth to meaning is important.

Krirtik the second is to use a fashon skinheads in Surakarta to mislead, makes people respond the way they are or what you should. This led to diversion of mind offered by such fashion, and the representation would be a lot done in human communication.

Interesting fashion studies to explain the curious cultural profile enjoyed by fashion. Interesting enough to show that a positive assessment of results marupakan way of looking at these profiles from one side, while the negative assessment is the result of the other side's view. In terms of fashion as the skinhead subculture identity within the scope of Surakarta, could be argued that it is not surprising that the fashion show a different profile and then a means of communication. The idea of fashion is very important as style practices that raise the game of life meanings in every form of culture.
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How to Register on FeedBurner

FeedBurner is a site that provide services or in terms of syndication feeds. Feedburner now have in the acquisition by Google, so we can divert our blog feed to feed from feedburner. This site is to introduce our blog via feed, if not through our blog feeds burner would be difficult to be detected by google, because it feeds the burner is very important to introduce our blog to the masses.
In addition to introducing our blog site to the masses, there feedburner various kinds of very useful functions such as email subscribtion, ping shoots, etc. animated headlines. For those of you who want faster famous blog I suggest you to join with feedburner, covered services for free. For you who want to know the procedures to register the details below:

1. Please visit http://www.feedburner.com.
2. Click on Register at the top of the page
3. Fill all the forms that are there
* Username -> fill with the desired username. example: let's
* Password -> fill with the desired password. example: let's
* Password (again) -> insert a password that had been re-written
* Email address -> contents with a pal email address have
* Secret Question -> content with that answer a secret question only friend who would know. Example: who is your mother's name?
* Secret Answer -> fill with the appropriate answers to the questions above.
* Click the button Sing in

4. If successful, appear a welcome (welcome) from feedburner
5. Fill in the box under the heading Burn a feed right this instant in your blog address.
6. Give a sign on the radio buttons, it is up to select which one, then click the Next button
7. Change Title to Feed Feed Address if you want the change, click the reply button has lived Active Feed
8. There is a saying Conrats, just click the Next button directly
9. Check the boxes next to Clickthroughs and I want more! PRO FeedBurner stats have also tracks (for now PRO service is free because it was already in the acquisition by google)
10. Click the Next button
11. Click the Optimize tab
12. Please setting you want, but the important thing is you have SmartFeed feature mengaftifkan, because this feature works in order that the function of our feeds or fit compatible with the existing feed reader
13. please click SmartFeed then click the Active
14. Click the Publicize tab, please select the features you want, but which is often used is a feature FeedCount try clicking FeedCount
15. Choose your style from FeedCount form, the ordinary or the animation, put a mark on the radio button beside
16. Click the Active
17. Copy the HTML code given in the text area, paste in notepad for later in the tide in your blog
18. Click the Chicklet Chooser to select the banner or chicklet.

Examples like the following:

19. Tick the radio button located next to each chicklet and copy the HTML code that is given in the text area, then paste to notepad. note: every buddy signaled to the radio buttons each chicklet, then automatically the HTML code in the bawahpun will change, so the conclusion put a radio button and then copy the HTML code it again and then put a copy of the code again
20. Click Pingshot, tick the box next to the Ping-o-matic as well as Newsgator, click on the dropdown menu there and select a buddy want, click the Add button, click the menu again if you want the dropdownnya add another, click Add again
21. Click the Active
22. Click the Headline Animator for the animated banner

For example like this:

23. Click the dropdown menu under the heading Theme, select the appropriate desire (the most in interest is the classic type)
24. Click the Active
25. Click the dropdown menu next to Add to, select a Blogger blog
26. Click the Next button
27. After the new window appears, click the Add to Blogger
28. please Singn in first in blogger
29. Select a blog that would in his pair of animated banner, then click the Add button widget will automatically animated banner will be added. note: this method only applies to the use of new template
30. Please sign out of the site

For features other options, please try it yourself.

One of the most final. As I said above was that it was in acquisition feedburner as google, then to feed the bloggers can switch to feedburner. How something like this:

1. Sing in the blogger
2. Click the Settings menu
3. Click the Site Feed
4. Next to Allow Blog Feed, select the Full
5. Save the feedburner feed address in the box next to Change of Direction posting Feed URL.
6. If you have a google adsense account, you can save the code your google adsense ads on the box next to Feed Item Footer
7. Click the Save Settings

By joining you with your site may feddburner quickly famous and many visitors, WELCOME TRY ...

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Installing save as pdf

May have a lot of understanding about the save as pdf, because it is quite important to pamper guests, also can facilitate the end to save articles of interest, here I will discuss about the save as pdf with the default view like this below

If you want to install the widget save as pdf file, follow these steps:
1. Login to your blog with your ID
2. Select Layout
3. On the menu tab select Edit HTML
4. Check the Expand Widget Templates box
5. Place the script below just below code <p><data:post.body/></p> . If you have installed the widget "read more", then usually there are two such codes. Therefore, the paste was this script code directly below the first code, code like the following :

<!-- START: PDF Online Script -->
<script type="text/javascript">
var authorId = "FC4DA3F4-6AC7-4GAE-937A-99AG3B5ED2CB";
var pageOrientation = "0";
var topMargin = "0.5";
var bottomMargin = "0.5";
var leftMargin = "0.5";
var rightMargin = "0.5";
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://web2.pdfonline.com/pdfonline/pdfonline.js">
<!-- END: PDF Online Script -->

6. Click the Save button
7. Done

If you are successful the result will be like having me here
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Adding Search Engine

We all know a lot of search functions or types of search in a virtual world, started from the google search, you tube search, ebay search, wikipedia search, and there is still much another.interesting search function it would have on our blog visitors can ease karna blogs to find what he was looking for, such as installing you tube search on the blog, this blog could facilitate visitors to search videos from you tube.dan as well as other search functions.

Would you like to have a multi-function blog, let's get this realize.tutorial present to assist the Bloggers who want to make it more eksprensif blog and interesting.To put on the blog search function is not difficult, the following steps:

1. Log in blogger with your ID

2. Click the Layout menu

3. Click Page Elements

4. Click Add a Page Element

5. Click ADD TO BLOG on the menu HTML / JavaScript

6. Then copy the following code in a HTML box

There are various search functions,
To add a google search using the following code:

<script src="http://gmodules.com/ig/ifr?url=http://wpsearchbar.wikia.com/common/wpsearchbar.xml&up_mylang=en&synd=open&w=280&h=40&title=&lang=all&country=ALL&border=%23ffffff%7C3px%2C1px+solid+%23999999&output=js"></script>

Good luck. Never be afraid to learn ...OK
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How to make Guest Book

Setting up a guest book (shoutbox / guestbook) on a blog is quite important, because the guest book is one means of interaction between the a blog by blog visitors, to provide criticism or suggestions yangb dapt build and make our blogs more lively .
Many sites that provide the guest book, as I put on my blog is http://www.shoutmix.com, to make it follow these steps:

1. First you must register first at http://www.shoutmix.com

2. If you already tedaftar, and on receiving a member shoutmix, please login with your id

3. In the column entitled Style, click the menu appearance.

4. Please click on the pulldown menu next to Load From Preset to set the display of your guest book, please select the line with your wishes. If you are finished click Save Settings.

5. To get the HTML code of your shoutbox, please click Use Shoutbox under the Quick Start menu

6. Click on Place Shoutbox on the web page. Fill the width and height of the desired shoutbox

7. Copy all the existing HTML code in the text area under the Codes Generated writing, and save on your Notepad program

8. Click Log out in the top of your screen to get out of your shoutmix pages. Please close the site.

9. Done

Welcome Trying yeach....
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Adding Clock In Blog

To beautify our blog can add various knick knacks on the blog, as I would like to discuss here is about adding Accesoris hours on blogs, to create or add to the blog Accesoris hours you can follow this several steps:
1. First we open www.clocklink.com
2. click on the Gallery menu,

Here are some options such as analog, animal, animation, until the wallpaper
For example we select the analog menu, there is an analog clock option, select the one you like click on the View HTML Tag
will look for pages containing the agreement, click on accept
3. Will appear for the html code in your blog copy, but before you can edit the colors of the analog clock to provide checks on the choice of colors (color) above and edit the html code (timezone) when the sample:
1. For the West Indonesia time is GMT +7
2. For Central Indonesia Time is GMT +8
3. For East Indonesia Time is GMT +9
To edit the size of the clock on the size 150x150 is usually normal size, you can resize it, after copying the code in your blogs.
Example of a blogger, go to blogger with your account click blog template or layout that will be Accesoris hours, click the ad a page element (create new page), click on the HTML / Javascript click paste.
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How to Make a Blog on Blogger

This discussion is already frequently discussed by bloggers friends, and already people are bnyak discuss this, but I still want to discuss let me see the full blog ... hehe, if you want to make blog follow these steps:
1. To create a blog on blogger you must have a google account, if you do not have a google account you can make it on www.google.com
2. Then after you have a google account, then you continue to blog by going to www.blogger.com

3. Then Please login with your gmail account you have buat.lalu new window will pop up as below, fill in all the data needed to make your blog, after all full click continue.

4. It would appear Stelelah new window containing the forms to make your blog, please use the either the name of your blog to the description, if everything has been filled then click continue living.

5. If it was then you just choose the theme of the blog, please select a theme and click Continue

6. Now you have a blog.

7. Kmudian click continue and you will be entered into the dashboard pages, you can start distu your blog to edit all there yanga there.

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How to Make ReadMore...

In order to blog look neat and writings on this blog does not look long and takes a lot of places, so here I wanted to share a little graffiti on how to make ReadMore ... to my friends, is as follows ...
1. Open the template => Layout => Edit HTML => check on the menu "expand widget tempate"
2. Put the following code just above the code </head>

<b:if cond='data:blog.pageType == "item"'>
span.fullpost {display:inline;}
span.fullpost {display:none;}

3. Put the following code at the bottom of the code <p><data:post.body/></p>

<b:if cond='data:blog.pageType != "item"'>
<a expr:href='data:post.url'> Read More..</a>

4. Click Save.
5. Click Settings, then click Format. At the bottom there is an empty box next to the menu POSTING TEMPLATE. Fill in the blank box with the following code:

<span class="fullpost">


Do not forget to click SAVE SETTINGS.

How To Posting
When posting, click EDIT HTML. So, will automatically appear the code

<span class="fullpost">


Put the post reply will be displayed on the front page above the code <span class="fullpost"> while the remainder (ie the entire entry / article), covered with a code </span>
Read more "How to Make ReadMore......"

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