Know First President Sukarno of Indonesia

Soekarno (Bung Karno) First President of the Republic of Indonesia, from 1945 to 1966, embraced the ideology of development 'stand on own feet'. Proclamator who was born in Blitar, East Java, June 6, 1901 This boldly mocking the United States and other capitalist countries: "Go to hell with your aid." To hell with your help.

He led the state-state-ra developing (newly independent) together. Leader of the Revolution was also successfully shook lorakan revolutionary spirit of his people, and maintain the integrity of the Republic of Indonesia.

Character art lover has a strong slogans hung high ideals of the star to bring people into the life of prosperous, just and prosperous. Development ideology embraced the man who came from the royal line of Java (His father named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, Java tribe and his mother was Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai, Bali tribe), this when viewed from the book Pioneers in Development, about embracing the ideology of development tended to be born the economists who did not know the dictionary that the building of a country have to beg to the West. But for them, is unlawful beg for foreign aid. Contact with the rich Western countries, let alone to ask for help, even harm the destitute (poor countries).
For Bung Karno, who as a child named Kusno, it seems to be no sweet tale for poor countries to build the capital and foreign aid. All the stuff conjunct development management and flow of modern technology have been transferred - to the rich and the poor so the West pursue - is just a tool of wealth of the poor suckers who make more retarded.

That's Bung Karno, who managed to inflame the spirit of revolution and led to stand on their own feet for the nation, although not yet managed to bring people in a prosperous life. The concept of "standing on their own feet" have not reached the goal but at least managed to give pride of the nation's existence. Rather than standing on foreign debt and dependence brings proven powerlessness (noekolonialisme).

Bung Karno's childhood was filled with the spirit of independence. Only a few years he lived with his parents in Blitar. During elementary school until graduation, she lived in Surabaya, room and board at home Tjokroaminoto Haji, a seasoned politician Syarikat Islam founder. Then continue on HBS (Hoogere Burger School). While studying at HBS that he had been galvanized nalismenya national soul. After graduating HBS in 1920, he moved to Bandung, and to continue to THS (Technische Hooge-school or High School techniques are now the ITB). He earned the title "Ir" on May 25, 1926.

Then, he formulated and established the doctrine Marhaenisme PNI (Partai Nasional Indonesia) on July 4, 1927, with the aim of an independent Indonesia. As a result, the Netherlands, the colonizer, landed him in jail Sukamiskin, Bandung on December 29, 1929. Eight months later a new trial. In his defense, entitled 'Indonesia Sue', he bravely expose depravity of the Netherlands, a nation that claims it is more advanced.

Defense that made the Dutch more and more angry. So in July 1930, the PNI was dissolved. After the free (1931), Bung Karno join Partindo and at the same time lead. As a result, he re-arrested by the Dutch and exiled to Ende, Flores, in 1933. Four years later moved to Bengkulu.

After a long struggle, Bung Karno and Bung Hatta proclaimed Indonesia's independence on August 17, 1945. Previously, he also succeeded in formulating the Pancasila which later became the basis (ideological) Unitary Republic of Indonesia. He seeks to unite the archipelago. In fact he tried to gather the nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America with the Asian-African Conference in Bandung in 1955 which later evolved into the Non-Aligned Movement.

Rebellion G.30.S./PKI delivery great political crisis. He did not want to ban the PKI is accused by students and the military of masterminding the atrocities of the general's killers. Increasingly chaotic political atmosphere. So on March 11, 1966 he issued a warrant to Suharto to control the situation, which became known as Supersemar. But, this is the beginning of his kejatuh. Because Suharto used it dismissed PKI Instruction and win the sympathy of politicians and students as well as 'seize' power. Instruction confirmed that the Assembly reject accountability and Sukarno and Suharto picked as Acting President.

Then Bung Karno 'imprisoned' in Wisma Yaso, Jakarta. His health continued to deteriorate. Finally, on Sunday, June 21, 1970 he died at the army hospital. He was buried at Wisma Yaso, Jakarta and was buried in Blitar, East Java, near the tomb of his mother, Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. His Majesty the Great Leader of the Revolution was leaving 8 children. From Fatmawati have five children namely Guntur, Megawati, Rachmawati, Sukmawati, and Thunder. From Hartini got two kids of Typhoon and Bayu. While from Ratna Sari Dewi, the woman called the original Japanese derivative Naoko Nemoto getting a daughter of Kartika.

Indonesia's first president was known as a great orator, which can be addressed in a very impassioned about the national revolution, neocolonialist-me and imperialism. He also believes in the power of great mass of people power.

"I am nothing without the people. I'm great because of the people, I struggled because of the people and I mouthpiece of the people, "said Bung Karno, in his 'Api Pancasila Digging'. A fairly honest expression of a great orator.

Soekarno-language symptoms is a rare phenomenon that invites admiration many people. Skill to use language with all sorts of style associated with his personality. This is reflected in autobiographies, articles and books containing the history of football terjangnya.

He is a cen-scholar who left his hundreds of essays and several drama scripts that may only ever staged in Ende, Flores. Collection of his writings was published under the title "Diba-wah Flag Revolution", two volumes. The first volume can be said the most interesting and important because it represents itself as Sukarno Sukarno.

From the thick book of about 630 pages that started the first article of the year 1926, entitled "Nationalist-me, Islamism, and Marxism" are the most interesting and perhaps most important as a starting point for understanding the surge of Sukarno in his youth, a 26-year-old boy.

In the midst of greatness, the orator and skilled writer, it always requires the support of others. He could not stand alone and do not like the place closed.

At the end of his reign, he often felt lonely. In his autobiography compiled by Cindy Adams, Bung Karno, the People's mouthpiece, told me. "I did not sleep for six years. I can not sleep good moment. Sometimes, late at night, I called someone close to me like Subandrio, Deputy Prime Minister One and I said, 'Bandrio come to my place, come with me, tell me something strange, tell a joke, tell us about any home not about politics. And if I fall asleep, please forgive .... For the first time in my life I began taking medication to sleep. I'm tired. Too tired. "

In another section stated, "Viewed as a whole then the presidency is like an exile a remote ... Often oranglah mind changing, not the mind ... They helped create this lonely island around you."

Anti Imperialism
On May 17, 1956. Bung Karno had the honor to deliver a speech in front of the United States Congress. As reported by the New York Times (first page) the next day, in a speech that he persistently attacked colonialism.

"The struggle and sacrifices we've made for our liberation from the shackles of colonialism, has lasted from generation to generation for centuries. However, the struggle was still not finished. How this struggle can be said complete if the millions of people in Asia and Africa still under colonial domination, still not able to enjoy freedom? "Cried Sukarno at that.

Remarkably, although the speech was strongly opposed colonialism and imperialism, and quite critical of Western countries, he got a great reception in the United States (U.S.).

The speech showed the consistency of thought and attitudes of Bung Karno antikolonialisme since his youth. Especially in the period 1926-1933, the spirit antikolonialisme and anti-imperialism was already clear dikedepankannya.

Very clear and firm collective memory of the bitterness of colonialism that made the foreign country's rich. However, words and facts are two different things, and not infrequently conflicting.

Sukarno and the initiators of nationalism forced wrestling between "word" and "fact" that it tries to knit political but it was not easy, and not infrequently a stalemate.

Sukarno, who diligently to speak, among other big idea to unite the nationalist, religious and communist (1926) found the same facts at all contradictory, when he tried to be a fact. Similarly, another big idea: Marhaenisme, or marhaenistis nationalism, which mature conceived in 1932. In fact, the idea of Pancasila.

Controversial figure
As someone who has a firm principle, Bung Karno was often considered a controversial figure. So no wonder if he has opponents or friends who dare to openly criticize or defend his views. In the eyes of political opponents in the country, he was considered to represent the abangan political figure who "not Islamic". They even rank as a group leader "secular nationalists".

However, in the eyes of Sheikh Mahmud Syaltut from Cairo, diggers Pancasila is adzima min Qaeda al-quwada dignity harir fii al-balad al-Islam (The leader of the independence movement in Islamic countries). In fact, Guided Democracy, which in the domestic debate, it was praised by Al-Azhar sheikh as, "in yakun ila al shara shuratu min syuraa 'allatiy ja'alha Qur'an sya'ana min al-mu syu'un 'minin' (no other picture is just one of the deliberation that made by the Holy Quran as the basis for the believer).

When mounting tensions between Israel and Arab countries about the status of Palestine at that time, the Arab press welcomes sensational Bung Karno, "Champion for Arab interests has come". Likewise, the Holy See gives three awards title to the president of the Republic of the Muslim majority.

Indeed, Bung Karno's defense against the oppressed is not only for his country but also other countries. That is why he was revered by the Arabs out of Israel was to attack at that time. Bung Karno was regarded as the leader of the Muslims. In fact, in his own country he is often seen more as the abangan than the students.

Actually, how religiuskah Bung Karno? Was not he also in formulating the precepts of Pancasila conception Belief in God Almighty? Sila which shows that the Indonesian people is a religious nation. Indonesia was the nation's diverse peoples and recognizes five religions. How could summarize the five religious vision in one of the basic sentence if the sentence-makers do not understand the context of religious life in Indonesia is true?

In this case eloquently quoted the opinion of Clifford Geertz's Islam Observed (1982): "Style is a style of religious Sukarno Sukarno himself." How not? To Louise Fischer, Bung Karno had confessed that he was once Muslim, Christian, and Hindu. In the eyes of observers such as Geertz, such recognition is considered as "expansive style as if to embrace the whole world". On the contrary, such expressions, in the opinion of BJ Boland, The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia (1982) - "just a manifestation of the religious feelings of the majority of the people of Indonesia, especially Java". For the Eastern spiritual appreciation, saying that it "is the courage to give voice to the thoughts that might be accused of formalism as heretical clerics".

Political System
Sukarno has a view of the political system they support is the most "fit" with "personality" and "culture" typical of the Indonesian people who supposedly importance of cooperation, mutual assistance and harmony. In rhetoric, he condemned the "individualism" that he said was born of Western liberalism. Individualism that gave birth to selfishness, and is mainly represented by antarpartai battle.

Then he popped the Guided Democracy. In Sukarno's politics of mass mobilization of political importance, he was sympathetic to the movements of anti-imperialism, and perhaps as a consequence, the acceptance of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) as a legitimate political actor, supporting the conception of democracy. So he launched a political system that is inherently anti-liberal and suspicious of political pluralism. He was concerned with "unity" for "revolution".

In the 1950s, Indonesia was marked by political instability caused by a system of parliamentary democracy. This system is very liberal, and dominated by the political parties who control parliament. 1955-election which was won four major powers, Masyumi, Indonesian National Party (PNI), Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and the CPI-are still considered the most free elections and clean throughout history have done Indonesia. However, on the other side of the system of party-controlled parliament is often downs cabinet led by prime minister. Moreover, history also notes that the national integrity is threatened constantly by various separatist movements, the AT / IT, PRRI / Permesta, and so on.

This fact is made even more suspicious of Sukarno political party because he thinks Masyumi, and also the PSI, was involved in several regional rebellions.
Then, Sukarno decreed a return to Indonesia in 1945 due to the failure of the Constituent Assembly to decide a new constitution for Indonesia, due to a protracted debate, especially between the secular nationalist forces and the Islamic powers of the state primary. ► e-ti/crs, from various sources

*** TokohIndonesia DotCom (Encyclopedia People Indonesia)


Grey Floral ©  Copyright by Blog Tutorial | Template by Blogger Templates | Blog Trick at Blog-HowToTricks